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Francesco
Forum Admin

Luxembourg
8491 Posts

Posted - 21/12/2016 :  22:03:53  Show Profile  Email Poster  Visit Francesco's Homepage  Reply with Quote
A problem often encountered in the formation of scientific names concerns the rules of Latin and Greek grammar.
This topic will help you to know the simple rules of these two languages.


Every scientific name is composed of 2 names.
  • The first one (= Genus) is a substantive (name)
  • The second one (= species and subspecies) can be an adjective (e.g. quality, colour, shape), which must be of the same gender of the first name, or a substantive.


In Latin and Greek grammar, names have 3 genders:
  • Masculine
  • Feminine
  • Neuter
  • The masculine names finish in -us or -os
  • The feminine names finish in -a
  • The neuter names finish in -um or -on


Names finishing otherwise are not simply identifiable: you should look for them in a dictionary.
However, Gemminger & Harold (1872-1873) have already studied them. You can find both books in the library here.


Names of species (adjectives) must follow these rules:
Masculine genera > species must finish in -us or -is
Feminine genera > species must finish in -a or -is
Neuter genera > species must finish in -um or -e

Examples:
Prionus coriarius
Prinous brevis

Leptura rubra
Leptura subtilis

Callidium coriaceum
Callidium simile
Dorcadion cinerarium
Dorcadion simile



Pay attention that they are few irregular masculine Latin adjectives:
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum, NOT pulchrus!
ruber, rubra, rubrum, NOT rubrus or rubus (this means Raspberries, blackberries, and dewberries!)


Francesco
Forum Admin

Luxembourg
8491 Posts

Posted - 21/12/2016 :  22:19:18  Show Profile  Email Poster  Visit Francesco's Homepage  Reply with Quote
Attention!

Names of species can also be substantives, e.g. jobs or names of animals.
They must always remain the same.

For example:
agricola = peasant
inquisitor = inquisitor
miles = soldier
molitor = miller
sartor = tailor
stratega / strategus = general
sycophanta = sycophant
textor = weaver

aries, arietis = ram
elaphus, cervus = stag
equus = horse
gazella = gazelle
ibex = chamois
taurus = bull
vacca = cow

Thus:
Prionus agricola
Lamia agricola
Callidium agricola

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Francesco
Forum Admin

Luxembourg
8491 Posts

Posted - 21/12/2016 :  22:29:19  Show Profile  Email Poster  Visit Francesco's Homepage  Reply with Quote
Attention!!!

Some Greek names have genders that do not seem to follow the previous rules.
That because these names have two forms: a complete one and a shorter one (which we use).
Fortunately, they are only few ... but very common!!!!
They are:

Soma (= corp) NEUTER
Stoma (= mouth) NEUTER
Schema (= schema) NEUTER


Odon (= tooth) MASCULINE

Thus:
Aegosoma scabricorne
Aegosoma scabrum
Orthostoma brunneum
Orthoschema albicorne

Mallodon dasystomus
Mallodon spinibarbis
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Francesco
Forum Admin

Luxembourg
8491 Posts

Posted - 22/12/2016 :  10:08:52  Show Profile  Email Poster  Visit Francesco's Homepage  Reply with Quote
A last case are peoples' names (patronymic).
The taxonomy use the genitive of them, adding -i for men and -e for women, without correlation with the gender of the genus, e.g.:

Prionus breuningi = Breuning's Prionus
Lamia breuningi = Breuning's Lamia
Dorcadion breuningi = Breuning's Dorcadion

Prionus mariae = Maria's Prionus
Lamia mariae = Maria's Lamia
Dorcadion mariae = Maria's Dorcadion


Plural peoples' names are genitive plural, even if they look neuter!
They usually finish in -orum

Prionus philippinorum = Sybra of Philippine people
Sybra philippinorum = Sybra of Philippine people
Phymatodes testaceus var. barbarorum = barbarous' Pymatodes testaceous
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Capitaine
Scientific Collaborator

France
1467 Posts

Posted - 22/12/2016 :  15:17:04  Show Profile  Email Poster  Reply with Quote
Un grand merci Francesco pour ces éclaicissements sur les régles de terminaisons, une aide précieuse..

Claude
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Francesco
Forum Admin

Luxembourg
8491 Posts

Posted - 14/01/2019 :  18:14:14  Show Profile  Email Poster  Visit Francesco's Homepage  Reply with Quote


Colours
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Xavier
Scientific Collaborator

France
9945 Posts

Posted - 14/01/2019 :  18:59:27  Show Profile  Email Poster  Reply with Quote
Je découvre ce post... Formidable !
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Gontran
Member Rosalia

Canada
862 Posts

Posted - 14/01/2019 :  21:29:13  Show Profile  Email Poster  Reply with Quote
Moi aussi j'aime bien ce post, et j'ajoute un commentaire, ou plutôt une question. À propos du génitif.... About genitive : people's names : I am still wondering why some authors used two ii (s). For examples: Anoplophora medembachii (Ritsema), 1881
in honour of Medembach, and A. bowringii (White), 1858 in honour of Bowring, and also
Stenocorus (Eutoxotus) schaumii (LeConte), 1850 in honour of Schaum etc. etc. I understand and agree that we have to keep the names as they were written by the authors, but it should have been medembachi, bowringi, schaumi etc.... So we should write hefferni, gouverneuri, weigeli etc. except of course if your name is Vitali or Rapuzzi.... then it will be vitalii and rapuzii. How come and who were teaching Latin in those years? Any clue about why some authors in different countries used two ii (s) ?

Gontran
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Pierre-Olivier Maquart
Member Rosalia

United Kingdom
768 Posts

Posted - 15/01/2019 :  10:38:20  Show Profile  Email Poster  Reply with Quote
Génial ! Merci Francesco !
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africaone
Member Purpuricenus

Belgium
417 Posts

Posted - 15/01/2019 :  11:46:38  Show Profile  Email Poster  Reply with Quote
even it is an error it is explained because some authors add an i after the "name latinised"
schaum : shaumium : schaumii

quote:
Originally posted by Gontran

Moi aussi j'aime bien ce post, et j'ajoute un commentaire, ou plutôt une question. À propos du génitif.... About genitive : people's names : I am still wondering why some authors used two ii (s). For examples: Anoplophora medembachii (Ritsema), 1881
in honour of Medembach, and A. bowringii (White), 1858 in honour of Bowring, and also
Stenocorus (Eutoxotus) schaumii (LeConte), 1850 in honour of Schaum etc. etc. I understand and agree that we have to keep the names as they were written by the authors, but it should have been medembachi, bowringi, schaumi etc.... So we should write hefferni, gouverneuri, weigeli etc. except of course if your name is Vitali or Rapuzzi.... then it will be vitalii and rapuzii. How come and who were teaching Latin in those years? Any clue about why some authors in different countries used two ii (s) ?


s'il n'y pas de solution c'est qu'il n'y a pas de problème ! akuna matata ....
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Gontran
Member Rosalia

Canada
862 Posts

Posted - 15/01/2019 :  13:23:46  Show Profile  Email Poster  Reply with Quote
Merci Thierry, mais je ne comprends pas ton explication.

Gontran
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africaone
Member Purpuricenus

Belgium
417 Posts

Posted - 15/01/2019 :  14:21:40  Show Profile  Email Poster  Reply with Quote
désole j'ai rédigé un peu vite
le genitif de Schaum(us) c'est schaumi, et on ajoute (c'est l'erreur qui est fréquemment faite) un i terminal ca devient schaumii
C'est comme ça que je me suis fait expliqué ce -ii si fréquent et erroné (il y a très longtemps d'où mon souvenir diffus)

D'une autre coté, ça va pas plaire à toute le monde, je pense que ce système est obsolète car il induit le latin comme langue de base. Mauvais signe en cette période de mondialisation et surtout de démocratie. j'aimerais voir notre tête si les japonais ou les chinois ou les indous avaient imposé leurs règles. Il y a comme qui dirait un relent d'impérialisme occidental dans cette histoire. Il y a de plus en plus d'ouvrages en alphabets autres que latin (chinois et japonais par exemple) et il serait plus sage de trouver un chemin plus consensuel et universel.
D'une point de vue plus pratique. Avec la fabrication de databases universelles et le nombre potentiel d'espèces encore à décrire (10 millions ?), ca va être chaud de garder des combinaisons de lettre qui veulent dire quelque chose (dans une seule langue en plus). La poésie n'est pas forcément l'amie du numérique.

s'il n'y pas de solution c'est qu'il n'y a pas de problème ! akuna matata ....

Edited by - africaone on 15/01/2019 16:56:28
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Gontran
Member Rosalia

Canada
862 Posts

Posted - 15/01/2019 :  14:39:01  Show Profile  Email Poster  Reply with Quote
Merci Thierry pour tes explications et un grand merci à Francesco d'avoir "posté" ces notions des règles pour les noms scientifiques.
Le latin demeure la langue de base la plus universelle et idéale pour la taxinomie.

Gontran
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Capitaine
Scientific Collaborator

France
1467 Posts

Posted - 18/01/2019 :  14:08:25  Show Profile  Email Poster  Reply with Quote
Merci Francesco pour le complément "color-panel/appelation", bien que certaines nuances ne soient pas évidentes à différencier cela reste un étalon de comparaison et une aide très appréciable pour les descriptions.

Claude
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